Confocal microscopy

Freezing without DMSO and any cryoprotecting additive induces severe damages of the cell membranes


HEDAF is integrated in plasma membranes of intact cells  but stains the cytoplasm in the  presence  of membrane breakage as well. Consequently the fluorescence in veins  that have been frozen without DMSO or any additives is significantly higher than in unfrozen control veins or in veins which have been cryopreserved in the presence of DMSO.